A musical instrument with a large stomach, a short and curved handle, a beam and a plectrum. Its curved back is made of 19 or 21 boards in the form of a circle. The body is hollow. In the course of the entrance section called the chest, there are small cavities on the sides called “roses”.
Oud instrument (written as “ud” in Turkish) is the ancestor of the European lute, name of which derives from “al-ud”. It is not a local Turkish instrument however it has been played in Anatolia for at least five centuries. Besides, in the history, the oud has been performed by several civilizations in Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Iran, Arabia. Accordingly, there are several types of ouds besides Turkish oud. The oud instrument occupies a terrific place in Turkish Art Music, Turkish city music (in fasil orchestras) and in arabesk music. Oud has been known from the documents and oral tradition because the king, sultan or emir of musical instruments.
History of Oud
In some sources, it is said that Farabi invented the oud, however lengthy before Farabi, there are oud and related instruments in miniatures and reliefs. The primary reason why Farabi is perceived as an inventor is that he is a musician who has mastered the oud and the tuning system he delivered to the oud. Farabi, who was a kind of who gave probably the most comprehensive information in regards to the oud in his interval, added the fifth string to the oud, which was a 4-string instrument till that time. In regards to the oud, Ibn Sina (980/1037) from Farabi says in his book Kitabu’ş Şifa that it is among the most famous instruments. Tells technical information resembling chords and pitches with figures. While musical instruments have been talked about within the Ikhwan-i Safa tracts in the tenth century, it was stated that probably the most lovely of these was the oud.
The frets on the handle of the oud, preserved in the Farabi interval, have been deserted towards the tip of the tenth century. The oud was previously performed with a wooden plectrum. The well-known Andalusian musician Ziryab (11th century) changed it with a plectrum made of eagle feather. Immediately, plectrums made of versatile plastic are generally used.
The oud instrument made its way to Europe through Spain. In the thirteenth century, the crusaders introduced it back to Europe, and in time, it turned the lute. That’s why lute takes its name after the oud (‘le ut’ in old French), however it’s been added different features from oud, like frets.
The oud, additionally which grew to become the center of attention within the Ottoman palace in the fifteenth century, gained an irreplaceable value that the public began to use in classical Turkish music within the nineteenth century.
Oud instrument has a large soundbox linked to a short neck. The instrument has a pear-shaped body which is a deep, striped bowl made from lightweight wood. The wood should be light because the bowl is supposed to reverberate when it is struck. The soundboard, the front part of the body, accommodates one or , typically three sound holes. These sound holes could also be oval or they are often ornamented relying on the lands they’re performed on. There is a piece of fish-skin or leather between the bridge and the sound hole with the intention to protect the belly from the strokes of the plectrum. The bowl of the oud is formed by thin woods or ribs bent over a mold. The number of the ribs varies from 16 to 21. The tuning pegs of the oud are screwed to the pegbox.
The quality of the material used in the making of the oudis important. The more the material is numerous, the better it sounds. A high-quality oud’s face is made from spruce. The tuning pegs and fingerboard are constructed from ebony. Maple, walnut, palisander and mahogany are used for the bowl.
The oud doesn’t have any commonplace size or number of strings. But on the whole, all the types of ouds have 11 intestine strings which are organized in five double-programs with a sixth, single bass string. Oud is played with a plectrum. Its fretless neck allows the instrument to generate any intervals or microtones particular to the Middle Jap music. Oud instrument is suitable for you to enjoy Turkish, Iran or Arab music by playing makams/maqamat.
Oudis performed according to 2 schools of performance. The primary is “Ottoman” school and it accepts as precept the ornamentation of the sound, produced by delicate glissandos or the fingers and slight vibratos. The second approach is Egyptian approach, according to which the amount is amplified by firm strokes of the plectrum, which makes strings resonate. This model requires another kind of virtuosity.
There are essentially six types of oud when they’re considered according to their origin. These types of oud principally differ of their timbre and there are small size variations between them.
Arabic oud is the most known oud instrument type and maybe the preferred because of its romantic, rich and deep sound. It’s heavier and slightly bigger evaluating to Turkish ouds. Turkish ouds are employed in Turkey and Greece. They have a more treble sound. Syrian oud, which is a sub-type of Arabic oud generates a number of overtones. Iraqi ouds might also be labeled under Arabic ouds. Its strings are tied to the bottom of the instrument. Because of this feature, it is said that it has a floating bridge. Iranian oud, which can also be called Barbat is more distinct and due to its form, it has a bass, deep, Persian sound.
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